The verb ending AVst 으세요/세요 is used when you are giving directions to the listener in a respectful and polite way. It is similar to a please in English when you are being polite.
This ending is placed after an Action verb stem (AVst).
If you were to ask someone for example to read something in a polite way, 읽다 which means to read would be conjugated as 읽으세요(Please read). As usual you would drop the 다 and add the suitable verb ending.
으세요 is placed after verbs that have a consonant (ㄱㄴㄹㄷㅁㅇ) in their last syllable and 세요 is placed after verbs ending with a vowel(ㅏㅗㅓㅣ) in their last syllable. The following examples may help you understand how this would be placed in a sentence.
책/읽다 (Book/to read) -------------> 책을 읽으세요. (Please read the book.)
하늘/살펴보다 (Sky/to watch) ------------> 하늘을 살펴보으세요. (Please watch the sky.)
자전거/타다 (Bicycle/ to ride) -----------> 자전거를 타세요. (Please ride the bicycle.)
I hope this made it easier for you to understand. Not only is this ending very important (Because we should always be kind) but it's also very useful in your daily life and can be a great way to practice your speaking skills too.
Every language, has it's twists despite looking so easy and Korean is no exception to that. The endings 으세요/세요 are used as endings to action verbs. However, certain verbs have their own honorific endings that you need in addition to 으세요/세요 serve.
Here are some of the main verbs that have their own honorific that you need to use along side the common 으세요/세요.
먹다 (To eat) - 드시다/잠수시다
마시다 (To drink) - 드시다
말하다 (To speak)- 말씁하시다
자다 (To sleep) - 주무시다
있다 (To exist/have) - 계시다
The action verbs with special honorifics are conjugated in the following way:
불고기/먹다(Bulgogi/to eat) --------> 불고기을 드세요 (드시 + 세요) Please eat bulgogi
주무시다 (To sleep) -----------> 주무세요 Please sleep
This just made it complicated is what you're probably thinking right now, but trust me, it get's easier as you practice and in no time this would come naturally to you! I believe you can do it and so should you.
That's it for now lovely readers~
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Thankyou for reading~