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아/어 있다, 아/어 놓다 Grammar Lesson | To be in a state

안녕하세요~ Koreanstudyjunkie입니다! Today I have 3 kind of difficult grammar structures for you. These are Intermediate level grammar.


~ V-아/어 있다

~ 는 대로

~ V -아/어 놓다

Disclaimer: This grammar either has no one-size fits all direct translation or can be difficult to translate.

V-아/어 있다

Usage: Is used to express the continuation of a completed action. The action has been completed, but the state still maintains itself. For example, if you stand (서다). You stood up so that action itself is done, but you are still standing so the phrase 서 있다 will be used to indicate the state continues.

It is often used with passive verbs such as 열리다 (to be opened), 닫히다 (to be closed)

When it comes to verbs like 입다, 신다 (verbs that indicate wearing something) you’ll just use V-고 있다

Example sentences:

선생님이 문 앞에 서 있어요.

The teacher is standing in front of the door.

할아버지가  침대에 누워 있어요.

My grandfather is lying in bed.

책에 이름이 쓰여 있어요.

His name is written on the book.

사람들은 모두 떠나고 남아 있는 사람들은 얼마 없었어요.

All the people left and there weren't many people remaining.

창문이 열려 있어요.

The door is being opened.

TV가 켜져 있어요.

The TV is being turned on.

승규의 필통에는 연필, 볼펜 등 필기구가 잔뜩 들어 있어 잘 닫히지도 않습니다.

Seunggyu's pencil case is full of pencils and

ballpoint pens, so it doesn't close well.

Differences between V-고 있다 and V-아/어 있다

V-고 있다 = express an action currently in progress

E.g. 꽃이 피고 있다 = the flowers are in the process of blooming.

V-아/어 있다 = express the continuing state of a completed action

E.g. 꽃이 피어 있다 = the flowers have bloomed and remain in the state.

V-는 대로 = According to, just as

Usage: N-대로, V-는 대로 is used to express that the following action is in accordance with the preceding action.

하고 싶은 대로 ... = ....anything you want

좋은 대로...= ...whatever you want

편한 대로 = as you like, it's up to you

Example sentences:

여기에 있는 음식은 마음대로 모두 먹어도 됩니다.

You can eat all the food here as much as you like.

약속대로 영화를 보여 줄게요.

As promised, I'll show you the movie.

제가 하는 대로 따라해 보세요.

Please follow just as I do.

지금 생각이 나는 대로 그림인 한번 그려 보세요.

Please draw a picture based on whatever comes to mind now.

언니가 지난 주말에 약속대로 어제 백화점에 가서 옷을 사 주었어요.

As promised last week, my sister went to department store and bought me some new clothes.

기상청에서 예보한 대로 비가 정말 많이 오네요.

It's raining really hard as predicted.

그냥 평소 제가 생각한 대로 대답했어요.

I just answered whatever came to mind.

여러분, 제가 발음하는 대로 잘 따라 해 보세요.

Everyone, follow my pronunciation well.

매일 만드는 대로 요리했는데 오늘은 평소보다 맛이 없는 것 같아요

I cooked every day, but today, it's not as good as usual.

V-아/어 놓다 = Keep doing, do beforehand

Usage: This grammar has 2 usages. The first is used when you or someone else does something in advance for future use, in other words you do something before hand. The second usage is to indicate that something continues to be in the same state mentioned previously.

Example sentences:

지수는 바람이 들어오지 않게 창문을 꼭 닫아 놓았어요.

Ji-Soo closed the window tightly so that the wind wouldn't come in.

몸이 아프 놓으니 아무것도 하기가 싫어요.

I don't want to do anything because I'm sick.

어머니는 학교에서 돌아올 아이에게 줄 간식을 미리 만들어 놓았어요.

The mother made snacks for the child who will come back from school in advance.

너무 추워 놓으니까 조금 기다리는 것도 고역이에요.

It's hard to wait even a little bit because it's so cold.

나는 병 뚜껑을 닫아서 다시 선반 위에 올려놓았다.

I screwed the lid on the bottle and put it on the shelf.

(And it’s still on the shelf)

바구니에 청바지 넣어 놓았어요.

I put my jeans in the basket. (And they are still in there)

내가 영화표 사 놓았어.

I bought the movie tickets. (And they remain bought)

그들은 신규 주택 200 채 건축 허가를 받아 놓았습니다.

They received permission to build 200 new houses.

(And they still have permission)

이것을 저기에 내려 놓으세요.

Put it down over there.

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