안녕하세요~ Koreanstudyjunkie입니다! Today, we'll talk about 4 different commonly used grammar structures.
Usage: is used to express the motive, purpose or intention of the action. It has the meaning of "in order to do something " and 가다, 오다 or even 다니다 is always followed by the verb in the sentence. Remove the 다 & add (으)러 가다/오다.
Ends in consonant - 으러 가다
Ends in vowel or ㄹ - 러 가다
우리는 쇼핑하러 명동에 갈 거예요.
We are going to Myeongdong to shop.
점심 시간에 칼국수 먹으러 갈 건데 같이 가실래요?
I'm going to go eat kalguksu during lunch time, do you want to go with me?
갑자기 친구들이 집에 놀러 왔어요.
Suddenly, my friends came to my house to play.
어머니는 과일을 사러 잠깐 시장에 가셨습니다.
My mother went to the market to buy some fruit.
Usage: ~(으)려고 하다 makes a complete sentence that can show intention for action or a possible state of the near future. Translated as “I’m planning to..” or “Intending to do...”
Remove ‘다’ from basic form of the verb, if the verb stem ends with a consonant, you have to add 으려고 하다 after the verb stem. (으)려고요 is the shortened form of (으)려고 하다.
Consonant - 으려고 하다
Vowels or ㄹ - 려고 하다
오늘 도서관에 가려고 합니다.
Today I’m planning to go to the library.
하루에 20개의 새로운 한국어 단어를 배우**려고요.
I’m planning to learn 20 Korean words per day.
내일부터는 일찍 일어나려고 해.
I try to get up early from tomorrow.
지수는 욕심이 많아서 그 많은 과자를 혼자 다 먹으려고 해요. Jisoo is greedy, so she tries to eat all the snacks by herself.
Usage: has the meaning of “In order to do something, I did something else.” -(으)려고 can’t be used with suggestive (let’s do... and shall we..?) and imperative (commands and requests) sentences.
Ends in consonant - 으려고
Ends in vowel or ㄹ - 려고
친구를 만나려고 커피숍에 갔어요.
I went to the coffee shop to meet my friend.
할머니는 책을 읽으려고 안경을 찾고 계셨어요.
My grandmother was looking for glasses to read a book.
배가 고파서 라면을 먹으려고 물을 끓이고 있어요.
I'm boiling water to eat ramen because I'm hungry.
나는 질문을 하려고 손을 들었어.
I raised my hand to ask a question.
Usage: ~기로 하다 has a similar meaning as ~(으)러 and ~(으)려고 하다 which is used with action verbs to express a plan or intention of any individual. It is added in the end of a sentence or clause to indicate that one “decides to do” an action.
When expressing it in past tense ~기로 하다 becomes ~기로 했다.
Remove ‘다’ from basic form of the verb, you have to add ~기로 하다 after the verb stem.
Whether It ends in consonant or vowel use 기로 하다.
인도 가기로 했는데 코로나 때문에 못 가거든요.
I intended to go to India but can't go because of Corona.
나는 이번 방학 때 수영을 배우기로 했어.
I decided to learn swimming during this vacation.
출퇴근 시간에는 차가 밀리니까 조금 일찍 나가기로 해요.
Let's leave a little early because there's a traffic jam during rush hour.
(으)려고 하다 vs ~기로 하다
Both ~기로 하다 and ~(으)려고 하다 are most often used in the past tense.
- V+(으)려고 했다/했어요 means 'to have planned something (but the plan might not have through)'. The speaker has some ' intention' behind speaking.
- V+기로 했다/했어요 also means 'to have planned something'. The speaker had made some 'decision' to communicate with this pattern.