안녕하세요! It's Koreanstudyjunkie. In this lesson I have a mix of intermediate and beginner grammar that I believe will be very useful in everyday use.
V-ㄹ/을까 말까 grammar = whether or not
Usage: You can use this when you are hesitant about doing something. This construction consists of 을까 (shall I, should I) + 말까 (shall I not). 말다 is often used as a negative expression to say “not do”. This grammar is often used with words indicating worry or thinking - 고민하다, 생각하다, 결정하다, and even just 하다.
V-ㄹ/을까 말까 하다 = I am wondering whether to do or not
V-ㄹ/을까 말까 고민하다 = I am worrying whether to do or not
V-ㄹ/을까 말까 생각하다 = I am thinking whether to do or not
V-ㄹ/을까 말까 결정하다 = I am deciding whether to do or not
You might also see these paired with 중이에요.
Meaning to be in the middle of doing something. It can add more emphasis.
날씨가 좀 더워서 코트를 입을까 말까 생각 중이에요.
The weather is a bit hot, so I'm thinking about if I should wear a coat or not.
비행기 표가 너무 비싸는데도 살까 말까 생각해요.
Even though the plane ticket is expensive, I’m wondering whether or not I should buy it.
그 구두가 너무 예쁘기는 하지만 불편해서 신을까 말까 고민 중이에요.
Those shoes are so pretty, but because they’re also uncomfortable I’m worried about if I should or shouldn’t wear them.
저녁 후에 디저트 먹을까 말까?
After dinner, shall we eat dessert or not?
V - 는 데 걸리다/들다 = It takes (time) to do/ It costs (money) to do
Usage: This grammar is used to talk about how much money or time it takes to do something. 걸리다 is used for time and 들다 is used for money. Make sure there is a space here - 는 데
이 책을 다 읽은 데 일주일 걸렸어요.
It took me a week to finish this book.
머리를 자르는 데 만원 들어요.
It costs 10,000 won to have a hair cut.
라면을 만드는 데 오분 정도 걸려요.
It takes about 5 minutes to make ramen.
한국에서 영화관에서 영화를 보는 데 약 만이천원이 들었어요
It cost about 12,000 won to watch a movie in the theatre in Korea.
언어를 배우는 데는 몇 년이 걸려서 포기하지 마세요.
It takes years to learn a language, so don’t give up.
ㄴ 적이 있다/없다 = have done, haven’t done
Usage: This can be used to talk about a certain experience you had in the past = have done / haven’t done. You can’t use these when talking about an everyday occurrence or thing that can be repeated. You are talking about a 1 time experience you had.
You could add another grammar -아/어보다 to this and make it V-아/어 본 적이 있다/없다 express the past experience of having tried something = have tried, haven’t tried. 아/어보다 is also a grammar that is used for talking about experiences.
Verb ending in vowel + -ㄴ 적이 있다/없다
보다 -- 본 적이 있다/없다 (have seen)
Verb ending in consonant + 은 적이 있다/없다
읽다 -- 읽은 적이 있다/없다 (have read)
가: 한국에 와서 병원에 간 적이 있어요?
A: Have you gone to hospital in Korea?
나: 네, 병원에 가 본 적이 있어요.
B: Yes, I have gone to hospital.
한국 드라마를 본 적이 있어요?
Have you seen Korean drama (before)?
한국 음식을 먹어 본 적이 없어요
I haven’t tried Korean food (before).
That's all for this lesson! I have plenty more grammar lessons like this here.