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Korean Particles ('and' & 'with'): ~과/와, ~랑/이랑 and ~하고

Updated: Apr 13, 2022

INTRODUCTION:

안녕하세요! I am Vaibhavi from India(인도).I hope this blog finds you well. In this blog you will learn basic yet important particles that you need to be aware of to build complex sentences. Let's get started!(시작해요)


Korean Particles(and) ~과/와, ~랑/이랑 and ~하고


~과/와, ~랑/이랑 and ~하고 can all be used interchangeably to mean “and” in Korean.

~과 and ~와 are the same, they both are used in writing and tend to be more formal. ~과 is attached to words ending in a consonant, ~와 is attached to words ending in a vowel.


Similarly, ~랑 and ~이랑 are the same, these are mostly used in speech and a bit more casual than ~하고. ~이랑 is attached to words ending in a consonant, ~랑 is attached to words ending in a vowel.


~하고 can be attached to words ending in a vowel or consonant. It is often used when you want to list things. You should not use ~하고 in very formal settings. One situation where you can use this could be while ordering in an restaurant. Now let's use these particles in sentences.


Particles ~과/와 example sentences:

저는 사과 오렌지를 샀어요 = I bought apples and oranges.

소금 설탕 좀 주세요 = Please give me some salt and sugar.

우리는 밥 빵을 팔아요 = We sell rice and bread.

나는 사과 바나나를 샀어 = I bought apples and bananas.


Particles ~하고 example sentences:

하고 우유를 먹었다 = I ate bread and milk.

하고 아버지는 영화를 봤어 = My brother and dad saw a movie.


Particles ~랑/이랑 example sentences:

나는 인천이랑 서울에 갈 거야 = I will go to Seoul and Incheon.

저는 책이랑 연필을 샀어요 = I bought a book and a pencil.



Korean Particles (with): ~과/와, ~랑/이랑 and ~하고


This might sound a little weird, but the same particles are used to mean “and” and “with” in Korean. Even at first you might think this is difficult it actually isn't you can distinguish them purely by the context of the conversation.


Here's what you need to remember: When used to have the meaning of “and,” a noun will always follow 과/와/(이)랑/

하고.

For example 저는 사과 오렌지를 샀어요 = I bought apples and oranges.

After 와, another noun is used, which means you are talking about apples AND oranges.


But, if the sentence is

나는 친구 갔어 = I went with my friend.

There is no additional noun after 와, which means it can only mean “with.”

Some examples:

나는 아버지 공원에 갈 거야 = I will go to the park with my dad.

선생님은 학생들 박물관에 갔다 = The teacher went to the museum with the students.


Two commonly used adverbs in these sentences with 'with' are 같이 and 함께. Both of them mean 'together,' and can be used in sentences even if the sentence doesn’t have one of the particles meaning 'with'.


우리는 집에 같이 들어갔어요 = We went into the house together.

우리는 집에 함께 들어갔어요 = We went into the house together.


In English we do not use 'together' and 'with' in same sentences. Like, I ate bread together with a friend. It sounds unnatural.

In Korean however, it is okay to use 같이 or 함께 in either of these situations; that is – with the word “with” in the sentence, or without it.


Examples:

저는 녹차를 엄마랑 같이 마셨어요 = I drank green tea with my mom.

저는 선생님과 함께 공부했어요 = I studied with my teacher.

저는 여자 친구와 함께 영화를 봤어요 = I watched a movie with my girlfriend.


The use of “함께” is generally used in writing and formal situations. Therefore, the use of 함께 is more likely to be paired with ~과/와 in these cases. Moreover, 같이 is more commonly used than 함께.


Okay! that's it for today hope you learned something. Do use this in your sentence practice exercises. For more lessons you can visit the website here:

For queries you can DM me (and follow me haha!) on my Instagram ID @iamlinguistic or just click on the link given below. See you there!!











2 Comments

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Wow! I didn’t know that there were different words for with and together depending on the situation!

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Emma22
Emma22
Apr 12, 2022

Yesterday while I was writing a 편지 I suddenly forgot which particle to use in which situations, and I almost ended up using 하고 in a formal situation.😂🤦‍♀️

I think I will come back to this blog more often to review these particles.😂❤

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